Invasive bacterial diseases (meningitis, bacteremia, sepsis, bacteremia pneumonia and other clinical inscriptions with bacterial isolation from normally sterile sites) have a significant clinical impact and are characterized by a high frequency of severe clinical scans. They are caused by different bacteria that hit sporadically, hardly predictable, or, rarely and depending on the responsible agent, they give rise to epidemic outbreaks.
Bacteria most commonly responsible for invasive and preventable bacterial diseases are vaccinations such as Neisseria meningitidis (meningococco), Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Haemophilus influenzae (hemophilia).
In light of the increasing number of cases of meningitis and meningococcal sepsis C in the Tuscany region since 2015, the media clamor which has raised the concern of citizens and the observation that public health practitioners carry out surveillance and surveillance procedures on national territory Control of unhealthy invasive bacterial diseases, the Ministry of Health has prepared the Circular on May 9, 2017.
The circular has also become necessary for progress in the diagnostic field and epidemiological changes due to both natural variations in the pathogens' trend and the progressive use of new vaccines.
The circular includes topics related to diagnosis, surveillance, prevention and control of bacterial invasive meningococcal, pneumococcal and hemophilia, defining standard procedures to be followed throughout the country for the protection of the individual and the community.
In particular, it is required to pay more attention to microbiological diagnosis through the use of both cultural and molecular methods and through the establishment of a reference microbiology laboratory for proper aetiological diagnosis.
Public Hygiene Services should improve timely reporting of suspected meningitis cases from any bacterial / septic meningococcal agent to the Ministry of Health and ensure transmission / loading of confirmed case information on the MIB surveillance platform , As per protocol, even if sent via the regional routine notification of infectious diseases. Particularly important is the need to update reports with microbiological data, the vaccine status of patients, and the outcome of the disease.
The circular provides indications for correct diagnosis of cases and for chemoprophylaxis and close contact vaccination in case of meningitis or other invasive meningococcal and hemophiliaal bacterial disease. A regional operational document is also recommended.