Infertility is "a disease of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of unprotected sexual intercourse", if you hear about it frequently because it affects more and more women and men no longer very young often affected from systemic diseases.
With this article we want to do a little 'clarity in the first place on the causes and in a second article we will show the different paths that can be done to get pregnant.
But let's start from the beginning: normally you get a pregnancy when:
1. A mature egg is released from one of the ovaries
2. The egg moves through the fallopian tubes
3. The seed moves through the neck of the uterus and then inside the fallopian tubes to reach the ovum and thus perform fertilization.
4. The fertilized egg goes down through the fallopian tube to the uterus
5. The fertilized egg implants and grows in the uterus
When one or more of these steps is interrupted, we will talk about female infertility. But what are the main fertility problems in women?
If the woman does not ovulate or does so with little frequency, we are facing an ovulation disorder, which represents 25% of all cases of female infertility. Some of the causes leading to ovulation disorders are: polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hypothalamic dysfunction, early ovarian failure or prolactin excess.
Damage to the fallopian tubes
Sperm can not reach the egg if the fallopian tubes are blocked or damaged. Any damage to the tubes could also block the path of the fertilized egg that must pass into the uterus to implant itself.
Some causes of this problem include pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted disease, previous surgery or pelvic tuberculosis.
Endometriosis occurs when the uterine tissue, which normally grows in the uterus, begins to proliferate outside the uterus itself. This growth and subsequent surgical removal can result in scarring which, in turn, could block the fallopian tubes and block the fertilized seed or egg.
Endometriosis can also damage the lining of the uterus and this negatively affects the possibility of implantation of the fertilized egg.
Uterine or cervical causes
Some disorders can indirectly cause infertility problems, negatively affecting the implantation of the fertilized egg or increasing the probability of spontaneous abortion.
These causes include benign polyps or tumors, scarring resulting from endometriosis, uterine malformations or cervical stenosis.
In a certain percentage of cases, the cause of infertility is unexplained and is usually due to minor problems of both members of the couple.
In the next article we will discuss the different possible solutions.